Lurking danger of flood-damaged buildings,镀锌钢格板
Published: 1/12/2011 at 08:46 PM
Online news: Learning From News
Have the pillars and beams of the buildings you work or live in been weakened to the point of collapse by floodwaters?
Photos of people driving to their home by boat. Boats are now the only way to get to some homes in the floodwaters (Photo: Pattanapong Hirundard)
Click button to listen to Flood Damaged Buildings to download
Critical questions concerning flood damaged structures
1) Are the structures of buildings such as shophouses, commercial buildings and housing estates strong enough to tolerate water pressure?
This basically depends on the construction standard. Normally, concrete buildings are stronger than those made of wood since there are steel bars inside the concrete. If the building is designed and constructed according to professional standards,expanded metal meshs, with sufficient steel bars and proper pillar size, it is quite certain that the structure can withstand the pressure of no more than two metres of water without grave structural damage or falling down.
2) Which part of the building can be damaged most in massive flooding?
Brick walls and the floors are the most vulnerable during a flood because they are the parts that come into direct contact with the water. The larger the surface, the more area will be affected by the floodwater and the pressure that comes with it. So, damage is more likely to occur to these parts compared to beams and pillars.
At one metre high, the water will exert pressure of 1,000 kilogrammes or a tonne per cubic metre. This will be doubled if it is two metres high. In reality, the wall and surface are only designed to put up with pressure of 100-200 kilogrammes per cubic metre for the walls and 200-300 kilogrammes per cubic metre for the floor. Therefore, huge pressure from water up to two metres deep may cause the wall to collapse and the floor to become warped and cracked. Wooden structures may become loosened.
3) What are the chances of the beams and pillars cracking?
Beams and pillars may be damaged if they are too small. Knock-down materials that are widely used in new housing estates can be a problem as there may be cracks in the connecting parts.
Besides, long-standing floodwater may devour parts of small pillars, exposing the steel bars to the water and causing them to rust. If this is the case, they urgently need to be fixed or the structure may crumble. If the cracks are severe, the beams will need to be replaced
Remain calm if you spot damages and cracks on beams and pillars as these may only be on the surface. If you find any cracks,Eastern area dry next week-hesco bastion, call an engineer to check them
4) What about the foundation?
There are two types of foundation, one with foundation piles underground and the other on the ground. Watch out for the underground structure to make sure that the foundation pillars remain intact. At the same time, the water may wash away the soil that holds the on-the ground foundation, causing the structure to become unbalanced.
5) Buildings with basements need special care.
Pumping water from a flooded basement must be carried out step-by-step with extreme care. Doing it in a rush can cause further damage. Initially, it’s necessary to keep pressure balanced between the water in and outside the basement, or pressure outside the basement will push the wall, causing serious cracks in the structure. It’s better to wait until the water outside recedes before siphoning the water from the basement.
6) Some guidelines for structural repairs.
If not severely damage, construction adhesives can be used for cracks in the walls and beams. The rust on steel bars needs to be removed and covered with rust-proof paint. Reinforcing the steel bars may be necessary.
Broken pillars must be removed and replaced immediately to prevent the structure from falling down.
Warped floors and walls must be fixed or rebuilt.
If the main structure slips from the foundation, it’s necessary to have a new foundation built. Call an engineer
7) Other concerns in addition to structural repairs.
Further checks are needed for damage to other parts of the house, like parquet floors, doors and windows as well as paint and wallpaper. Some works,石笼网, like the electrical system, require a professional.
If there are any doubts about inspecting buildings, call the Engineering Institute of Thailand on 02-319-24103. From www.thaireform.in.th/news-health-system/item/ 6671-2011-11-14-10-03-35.html. Contributed by Associate Professor Amorn Pimanmas, PhD, from Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University. Translated by Pinnachan Dangulavanich.
(Source: SMART CHOICE, Critical questions concerning flooddamaged structures, 28/11/2011, link)
Post-Flood Building Repair Vocabulary
structures of buildings – สิ่งก่อสร้าง, อาคาร, สิ่งที่สร้างขึ้น
pillar – a tall solid supports for a building,Froc Eastern area dry next week-etching, also called a “column” เสาหิน ตอหม้อ หรือ คานรับน้ำหนัก (See Wikipedia) เสาหลัก
beams – long thick pieces of metal, concrete, etc. especially used to support weight in a building or other structure เสา (See Wikipedia)
construction – the work of building or making something, especially buildings, bridges, etc. การก่อสร้าง
standards – an acceptable level of quality or achievement มาตรฐาน
profession – a field of work that requires special, education, training, and licensing exams such as architecture, medicine, accounting, etc
professional standards – high levels of quality followed in a profession
constructed according to professional standards
flood damaged structures
structural damage – damage to the structure of the building (such as the pillars, beams and foundation that support the building)
grave – very serious; very dangerous วิกฤติ, ร้ายแรง
grave structural damage – very serious and bad damage to the structure of a building
critical questions – important questions
critical questions concerning flood damaged structures
cracks – lines on a surface where something is beginning to break apart; divisions รอยแยก ส่วนที่แยกออก
cracks in the connecting parts
serious cracks in the structure.
cracks in the structure
spot – to see or notice
spot cracks – see cracks (that need to be repaired)
surface – on the outside of an object
cracks may only be on the surface
remain calm if you spot damages and cracks on beams and pillars as these may only be on the surface
severe – very serious and worrying ที่รุนแรง ที่น่าเป็นห่วง
if the cracks are severe, the beams will need to be replaced
What are the chances of the beams and pillars cracking?
knock-down materials – cheap materials (low quality for low price)
building materials – materials such as cement, steel bar, etc used to building buildings
concrete – the material used to make most buildings structures, a “construction material, composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water and chemical admixtures” (See Wikipedia) คอนกรีต,
concrete buildings are stronger than those made of wood since there are steel bars inside the concrete
foundation – the part of a structure of a building that is below the ground and supports the rest of it รากฐาน
foundation piles – a long pole-like object made of reinforced concrete, steel or wood driven into the ground to make the foundation of a building stronger (See Wikipedia)
there are two types of foundation, one with foundation piles underground and the other on the ground.
intact – not harmed, damaged, or lacking any parts as a results of something that has happened สมบูรณ์ ไม่บุบสลาย
watch out for the underground structure to make sure that the foundation pillars remain intact.
brick – a small block of concrete or ceramics stacked to build a structure อิฐ (See Wikipedia)
brick walls – walls made of cement bricks stacked on each other (without the steel bars of poured concrete)
brick walls and the floors are the most vulnerable during a flood because they are the parts that come into direct with the water.
steel bars – long steel bars used to make the concrete in buildings stronger, also “reinforcement bars” or “rebars” used in “reinforced concrete” (See Wikipedia)
reinforce – make stronger, strengthen, support ทำให้แข็งแกร่งขึ้น, สนับสนุน, เสริม
reinforcing the steel bars
rust – the chemical reaction of oxidation of iron metal which weakens the metal and turns it red in color , also called corrosion, oxidation สนิม, ขี้สนิม (See Wikipedia)
rust-proof paint – paint that prevents metal from rusting
the rust on steel bars needs to be removed and covered with rust-proof paint. Reinforcing the steel bars may be necessary.
siphon – when you siphon liquid from a container, you make the liquid come out through a tube and down into a lower container, by using the pressure of air on it to push it out ถ่ายน้ำโดยวิธีกาลักน้ำ, ดูดน้ำออกด้วยหลักความกดอากาศ, ดูดของเหลวออกด้วยท่อหรือสาย
siphoning the water from the basement
it’s better to wait until the water outside recedes before siphoning the water from the basement.
adhesives – glues (used to join two surfaces together) สิ่งที่ทำให้ติดอยู่ได้, สิ่งที่ทำให้ของติดกัน
construction adhesives can be used for cracks in the walls and beams.
warped – wood that is bent บิดงอ
warped floors – wooden floors that have bent
warped floors and walls must be fixed or rebuilt
slip – slide, move from a place suddenly and quickly ลื่นไถล, ไถล
slip from the foundation
if the main structure slips from the foundation, it’s necessary to have a new foundation built.
parquet floors – a style of wooden floor (See Wikipedia)
wallpaper – paper put on the wall of a room to decorate the room (instead of painting the room) (See Wikipedia)
shophouses – the building you see most often on the streets of Bangkok,Flood cash to be eyeballed-wire mesh, with a shop on the first floor, and a living area on the floors above (See photo at top of page) ร้านค้า
commercial – for business purposes
commercial buildings – buildings for shops, facatories and other businesses
housing estates – special areas with a lot of houses
pressure – force per unit area (See Wikipedia) ความดัน
water pressure – the force of water against an object (which can damage structures)
tolerate water pressure – when an object or structure does not break from the water pressure force against it
strong enough to tolerate water pressure
sufficient – enough พอเพียง
sufficient steel bars
proper – right or correct
proper pillar size
the building is designed and constructed according to professional standards, with sufficient steel bars and proper pillar size
withstand – to be strong enough not to be hurt or damaged by extreme force, extreme conditions, etc. ทนทาน
withstand pressure – not break under pressure
the structure can withstand the pressure of no more than two metres of water without grave structural damage or falling down.
massive – very large in size, amount or numberใหญ่โต
vulnerable – easily affected or damaged ที่เปราะบาง ที่ล่อแหลมต่อการเกิดภัยภิบัติ
come into direct contact with – touching the water
the larger the surface, the more area will be affected by the floodwater and the pressure that comes with it.
in reality, … – what is true ….
reality – actually happening ความเป็นจริง
put up with pressure – same as “withstand pressure”
the wall and surface are only designed to put up with pressure of 100-200 kilogrammes per cubic metre for the walls
collapse – falling down suddenly ล้ม พังครืน
huge pressure from water up to two metres deep may cause the wall to collapse and the floor to become warped and cracked.
loose – not tight
wooden structures may become loosened
devour – to read news quickly and eagerly กระหาย
devour parts of small pillars
exposing the steel bars to the water
long-standing floodwater may devour parts of small pillars, exposing the steel bars to the water and causing them to rust
urgently – needing to be dealt with immediately อย่างเร่งด่วน
fix – repair
crumble – to break, or cause something to break, into small pieces แตกละเอียด
they urgently need to be fixed or the structure may crumble.
calm – peaceful and quiet; without anxiety ใจเย็น,ไม่ตื่นเต้น, สงบ
wash away soil – when the dirt on the ground goes away with water
at the same time, the water may wash away the soil that holds the on-the ground foundation, causing the structure to become unbalanced.
extreme – much more severe or serious than usual ที่ร้ายแรงมาก, ที่รุนแรงที่สุด
done with extreme care
carry out a task – do a task
carry out with extreme care
carried out step-by-step – follow an exact procedure or way of doing a task with a exact series of steps
pumping water from a flooded basement must be carried out step-by-step with extreme care
rush – doing something too quickly รีบเร่ง, วิ่ง
doing it in a rush
doing it in a rush can cause further damage
balanced – ที่สมดุล
keep pressure balanced
initially, it’s necessary to keep pressure balanced between the water in and outside the basement, or pressure outside the basement will push the
guidelines – useful rules or advice to help you perform some task or engage in some activity แนวทาง นโยบาย
guidelines for structural repairs
immediately – happening right after something else with no delay; right away ทันที
replace immediately – change right now (without any delay, do not wait)
broken pillars must be removed and replaced immediately to prevent the structure from falling down.
concerns – worries ความกังวล
doubts – things that you think might not be true, uncertainties; questions about whether something is really true
critical – very important because a future situation will be affected by it สำคัญยิ่ง
Military Barriers/Hesco Bastions
The QIAOSHI’s Military Barriers or Hesco Bastions is a modern gabion used for flood control and military fortification. It is made of a collapsible wire mesh container and heavy duty fabric liner, and used as a temporary to semi-permanent dike or barrier against blast or small-arms. One of the less heralded life- and labor-saving devices of war, it is used on nearly every United States Military base in Iraq as well as on NATO bases in Afghanistan.
Originally designed for use on beaches and marshes for erosion and flood control, the Hesco Bastion quickly became a popular security device in the 1990s.
Assembling the Hesco Bastion entails unfolding it and (if available) using a front end loader to fill it with sand, dirt or gravel. The placement of the barrier is generally very similar to the placement of a sandbag barrier or earth berm except that room must generally be allowed for the equipment used to fill the barrier. The main advantage of Military Barrier, strongly contributing to their popularity with troops and flood fighters, is the quick and easy setup. Previously, people had to fill sandbags, a slow undertaking, with one worker filling about 20 sandbags per hour. Workers using Military Barrier and a front end loader can do ten times the work of those using sandbags.
The Hesco Barrier come in a variety of sizes. Most of the barriers can also be stacked, and they are shipped collapsed in compact sets. Example dimensions of typical configurations are 46″ x 36″ x 32 (1.4m x 1.1m x 9.8m) to 7 x 5 x 100 (2.1m x 1.5m x 30m).
A new system of Hesco Bastion developed specially for military use is deployed from a container, which is dragged along the line of ground where the barrier is to be formed, unfolding up to several hundred meters of barrier in minutes, ready for filling with soil by a backhoe.
Filled with sand, 60 centimetres (24 inches) of barrier thickness will stop rifle bullets and shell fragments. It takes 1.5 metres (five feet) of thickness to prevent penetration by a rocket propelled grenade round. Approximately 1.2 metres (four feet) of thickness provides protection against most car bombs.